Special recommendations for administering Vineland-3 via telehealth
The Vineland-3 can be administered in a telehealth context by utilizing Pearson’s Q-Global® software system. Details regarding the Q-global system and how it is used are provided on the Q-global homepage.
The Vineland-3 is available in three administration forms: The Interview Form, The Parent/Caregiver Form, and the Teacher Form. Each form has a Comprehensive version and a Domain version. Please refer to the Vineland-3 Manual to help with decisions regarding which forms are appropriate for each client/referral question.
For telehealth, the Interview Form must be conducted with the informant via video-conferencing, with the examiner using Q-Global On-Screen Administration (OSA) to guide the interview and score responses. It is important to note that the Vineland-3 Interview Form was not standardized in a telehealth format, and this should be taken into consideration when determining the use of this measure for telehealth administration. The Parent/Caregiver and Teacher Forms are administered through Q-global Remote On-Screen Administration (ROSA) and do not require video contact. The considerations and options for telehealth are different for the Interview Form and forms administered through ROSA. This document will guide you through remote administration of both OSA and ROSA administrations for the Vineland-3.
Conducting an assessment in a telehealth service delivery model requires an understanding of the interplay between a number of complex issues. In addition to the general information on our Telehealth homepage, professionals should address five themes (Eichstadt et al., 2013) when planning for administering Vineland-3 via telehealth.
Theme-specific information for Vineland-3
1. Audio/visual environment
The following information is applicable only to administration of the Vineland-3 Interview Form using Q-global OSA:
- Make sure the full face of the examinee is in view on the video-conferencing screen.
- For audio interaction during the administration, make sure the audio is working as expected. Test the audio prior to the administration either through the informant’s speakers, headphones (with microphone), or headset and ensure a high-quality audio environment is present.
- Make sure the informant's environment is free from distractions as much as possible.
- Note that per the Vineland-3 manual, conducting the interview over the telephone is not recommended because:
- It is more difficult to establish rapport needed for an effective interview
- Telephone communication does not allow for viewing the informant’s facial expression and body language cues that can alert an examiner to probe further
- Video-conferencing is similar to the face-to-face administration that was conducted during standardization of the Vineland-3.
No audio/visual equipment is needed for the use of Vineland-3 administration through Q-global ROSA.
2. Examiner factors
Vineland-3 Interview Form OSA
- In order to conduct video-conferencing with the informant and complete the OSA administration of the Interview Form, ensure that the examiner has a functioning Internet connection and access to two screens in order to conduct the interview and complete the OSA for the Interview Form simultaneously. See “Test/test materials” below for more information.
- When conducting the assessment using the Interview Form via video-conference, please note the audio/visual environment information above. Do everything possible to ensure that the session is set up appropriately to elicit a valid response from the respondent, and that the interview mimics an in-person session as closely as possible.
- If there is a problem with the video-conferencing quality, make sure all other non-essential applications on the examiner’s computer are closed. Likewise, ask the informant to close all other applications on their computer, laptop, or other device for faster administration performance.
- The Vineland-3 Manual provides a thorough description of the considerations for conducting an interview that would still be applicable to a video-conferencing session in a telehealth setting.
- Directions for administering a Remote On-Screen Administration (ROSA) in Q-global can be found here: Q-Global: Administer a Remote On-Screen Administration (ROSA).
- Practice the mechanics and workflow of assigning, starting, and completing the assessment using the on-screen administration capabilities of ROSA before going through this process with an examinee to get familiar with the administration procedures.
- Ensure that the respondent(s) for the ROSA forms have valid examiner contact information (e.g., email and/or phone number) to ask any questions they may have regarding the assessment.
- If using both the Interview Form and the Parent/Caregiver Form for an assessment, it may be helpful to collect the completed Parent/Caregiver Form from the respondent prior to conducting the Interview Form in order to ask clarifying questions about responses.
3. Examinee factors
As noted on the general telehealth page, please ensure that a remote assessment administration is appropriate for the client and for the purpose of the assessment. Use clinical judgement, best practice guidance, existing research, and any available federal or state regulations in the decision-making process.
Vineland-3 Interview Form OSA:
- Ensure that the informant is able and prepared to appropriately engage in the interview session and that they are well rested, can adequately attend to the questions, and are ready to fully participate in the interview session.
- Ensure that the informant has access to a functioning Internet connection.
- Before the interview, ensure that the informant has a headset, headphones with a microphone, or a web camera with an embedded microphone with the volume turned up to a comfortable level.
- Ensure that the person completing the rating forms has a working email address in order to access the forms.
- Emphasise to the respondent(s) to follow the instructions as stated on the forms. Provide valid examiner contact information in case the respondent has a question or problem with the online administration.
- Follow-up with the respondent(s) may be needed if it does not seem that the assigned form is being completed in a timely manner.
4. Test/test materials
Vineland-3 Interview Form OSA:
- The online Interview Form can be completed on a computer or a tablet.The examiner must have access to two screens during remote administration.
- One screen must be for video-conferencing with the informant. The second screen is needed to access Q-global to view the Interview Form content and record and score responses. This may include two computer monitors or a computer screen and a tablet.
- The Parent/Caregiver and Teacher Forms may be completed on a computer, tablet, or smartphone.
- As noted on the general telehealth page, please ensure that a remote assessment administration is appropriate for the client and for the purpose of the assessment.
- Ensure that the person(s) completing the ROSA has a working email address in order to access the forms.
- As stated above, provide valid examiner contact information in case the respondent has a question or problem with the online administration.
If you are administering the test using the On-Screen Administration (OSA) function of Q-global while the informant is in a remote location, it may be advisable to ensure someone that is familiar with using video-conferencing technology is onsite with the informant to assist with connecting to the video conference.
Always state in your report that the test was administered via telehealth, and briefly describe the method of telehealth used.
- Example for Interview Form OSA: “The Vineland-3 was administered using a live video connection with [respondent’s name and/or relationship to the client being assessed].” If a person other than the respondent was needed to assist with the video-conference, a statement such as, “A family member/caretaker/friend assisted the respondent with ensuring the best video connection and interaction with the examiner.”
- Example for ROSA: “The Vineland-3 was administered by remote on-screen administration through the Q-global system for the Parent/Caregiver and Teacher Forms.”
Make a clinical judgment, similar to a face-to-face session, whether or not you are able to gather the best performance from the informant and/or respondents. Report your clinical decision(s) in your report and comment on the factors that led to this decision and your reporting or lack of reporting of the scores.
- Example for Interview Form OSA: "The remote testing environment appeared free of distractions, adequate rapport was established with the informant via video, and s/he appeared appropriately engaged in the task throughout the session. No significant technological problems were noted during administration, and the results are considered to be a valid estimate of the client's skills/abilities."
- Example for ROSA: “The respondent appeared to understand the task and had no significant difficulties with the technology used to administer the [Parent/Caregiver Form or Teacher Form]. Results are considered to be a valid report and estimate of the client’s skills/abilities.”
Selected research to date
Please refer to the following studies for considerations regarding telehealth:
Butcher, J., Perry, J., & Hahn, J. (2004). Computers in clinical assessment: Historical developments, present status, and future challenges. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 331-345.
Henry, B.W., Block, D.E., Ciesla, J.R., et al. (2017). Clinician behaviors in telehealth care delivery: a systematic review. Advances in health science education, 22, 869–888 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-016-9717-2
Juárez, A. P., Weitlauf, A. S., et al. (2018). Early Identification of ASD Through Telemedicine: Potential Value for Underserved Populations. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 48(8), 2601–2610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-018-3524-y
Luxton, D. D., Pruitt, L. D., & Osenbach, J. E. (2014). Best practices for remote psychological assessment via telehealth technologies. Professional psychology: research and practice, 45(1), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034547
Russell M. et al (2003). Computer-Based Testing and Validity: A Look Back and into the Future. Technology and Assessment Study Collaborative, Boston College.
Provided that you have thoroughly considered and addressed all five themes and the special considerations as listed above, and based on the available research, the delivery of the Vineland-3 via telehealth should be considered as a viable alternative to standard administration options. As noted above, the Vineland-3 Interview Form was not standardized in a telehealth format, and this should be taken into consideration when utilizing this test in a telehealth setting. The modifications to the assessment via telehealth should be clearly documented in your report and considered in interpretation. You may use the Vineland-3 via telehealth without additional permission from Pearson in the following published context:
- Vineland-3 Interview Form OSA with video-conferencing administration.
- Vineland-3 Remote On-Screen Administration (ROSA) via Q-global.
Any other use of the Vineland-3 via telehealth requires prior permission from Pearson and is not recommended at this time.